## Explain Circular and Elliptical Polarisation

In both circular and elliptical polarisation the electric and magnetic field vectors rotate with angular frequency w. In circular polarisation E0,y = E0,x ≡ E0 and (ϐy – ϐx) = ± π/2, so that the…

In both circular and elliptical polarisation the electric and magnetic field vectors rotate with angular frequency w. In circular polarisation E0,y = E0,x ≡ E0 and (ϐy – ϐx) = ± π/2, so that the…

In linear polarisation the two phase constants are equal, by ϐy = ϐx ≡ ϐ, and so Re {R (r, t) = (x E0,x + y E0,y) cos (kz – wt + ϐ) The locus…

In this section linear, circular and elliptical polarisations will be described in terms of the electric field of a monochromatic plane wave propagating in the +z direction which can be written The actual field is…

The monochromatic plane wave solutions are an idealisation because they are of infinite extent in all directions and are pure sinusoidal waves, i.e. the spread in angular frequencies is Δω = 0. The same is…

Since for an EM wave B = √(μƐ) E, the electric and magnetic contributions to energy density are equal, (Ɛ E2)/2 = B2/2μ and so the total energy density in the Electromagnetic waves are u =…

Starting with Maxwell’s equations, we shall shortly derive the wave equations for the electric and magnetic fields and show that they predict the existence of electromagnetic (EM) waves in free space travelling at speed c.…

Unless the line is terminated with the characteristic impedance there will also be reflected waves traveling in the -x direction, and the wave amplitude will be the sum of incident and reflected components. If the…

We will only discuss lossless transmission lines, i.e. where there is no resistance present between or along the conductors. Then the equivalent circuit of infinitesimal length dx is shown in below Fig. Note that here…

Transmission lines are electrical cables which consist of two parallel conductors of uniform cross section, usually separated by a dielectric, and which are designed to transmit radio frequency ( ≈ KHz to ≈ 300 MHz)…

One can derive the equation describing conservation of momentum from the force on a particle of charge q, as given by Lorentz force equation F = (qE ÷ qv x B). For the charges inside…

In 1884 English physicist John Henry Poynting (1852-1914) published his theorem, which is an expression of the law of conservation of energy in electrodynamics. We shall obtain Poynting’s theorem from Maxwell’s equations by taking the…

We can use Gauss’ law to replace p = Ɛ0 Δ • E in the continuity equation to get Δ. J + [ϐ (Ɛ0 Δ • E) / ϐt] = 0 So, Δ . (J…

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