The base of Number System The base of a number system is the total number of fundamental sign used in that system. For example, there......

From the beginning of civilization idea of counting developed in the human being. From then onward different counting systems have developed according to the need......

Expression of Ratios: Ratio is an expression of one number in relation to another. Ratio analysis is the procedure of formative and interpreting the mathematical......

When θi > θc, we have total internal reflection, but there must still be an EM field present on the the other side of the......

The reflectance and transmittance are defined in terms of the rate of energy flow incident on unit area of the interface, Si • (- ei)......

For normal incidence the plane of incidence is undefined and the results we have obtained for the cases of parallel and perpendicular polarisations must therefore......

The amplitude coefficients for the case of internal reflection r┴ , t┴, r‖ and T‖ are plotted in Fig (a) for flint glass to air.......

By definition, for external reflection nt > ni. Hence, √ [(nt / ni)2 – sin2 θi] is real for all θi, and so therefore are......

Amplitude reflection and transmission coefficient for parallel polarization Figure: EM field geometry for parallel (π, p) polarisation. The magnetic field is shown pointing in to......

Amplitude reflection and transmission coefficients for perpendicular polari-sation Figure: EM field geometry for perpendicular (σ, s) polarisation. The electric field is shown pointing out of......

As an electromagnetic wave intersects the interface between two dielectrics, it is the boundary conditions on the electromagnetic field that determine the properties of the......

Consider a monochromatic plane EM wave incident on a plane boundary between two dielectric materials. Part of the wave is transmitted and part is reflected.......

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