## Base of Number System

The base of Number System The base of a number system is the total number of fundamental sign used in that system. For example, there are ten fundamental signs in the decimal system. For example,…

The base of Number System The base of a number system is the total number of fundamental sign used in that system. For example, there are ten fundamental signs in the decimal system. For example,…

From the beginning of civilization idea of counting developed in the human being. From then onward different counting systems have developed according to the need and convenience. In arithmetical processes, digital system is a process…

Expression of Ratios: Ratio is an expression of one number in relation to another. Ratio analysis is the procedure of formative and interpreting the mathematical relationship between figures of financial statements. A ratio is a…

When θi > θc, we have total internal reflection, but there must still be an EM field present on the the other side of the interface to satisfy the boundary conditions. This transmitted EM wave…

The reflectance and transmittance are defined in terms of the rate of energy flow incident on unit area of the interface, Si • (- ei) = Si cos θi. Thus the reflectance and transmittance are…

For normal incidence the plane of incidence is undefined and the results we have obtained for the cases of parallel and perpendicular polarisations must therefore become identical as θi → 0. For perpendicular polarisation the…

The amplitude coefficients for the case of internal reflection r┴ , t┴, r‖ and T‖ are plotted in Fig (a) for flint glass to air. There is a critical angle of incidence θc such that…

By definition, for external reflection nt > ni. Hence, √ [(nt / ni)2 – sin2 θi] is real for all θi, and so therefore are r┴ , t┴, r‖ and T‖ plotted in Fig (a)…

Amplitude reflection and transmission coefficient for parallel polarization Figure: EM field geometry for parallel (π, p) polarisation. The magnetic field is shown pointing in to the page. The EM field geometry for parallel (π, p)…

Amplitude reflection and transmission coefficients for perpendicular polari-sation Figure: EM field geometry for perpendicular (σ, s) polarisation. The electric field is shown pointing out of the page. The EM field geometry for perpendicular (σ, s)…

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