The electrical device through which the high alternating potential can be changed into low alternating potential and low potential into high potential is called a transformer. This device is made on the basis of electromagnetic induction. There are two kinds of transformers.
These are –
- Step up Transformer: The transformer which converts an electric current of greater strength at a low voltage into an electric current of weaker value at high voltage is known as a step-up transformer.
- Step down Transformer: The transformer which changes the high potential less electric current into low potential much electric current is a step-down transformer.
A transformer is made on a soft iron core in a rectangular form in which two coils of insulated copper wire are inserted in its two opposite limbs. The coil in which an a.c. or emf is applied is known as a primary coil. The coil in which an a.c or emf is induced is known as a secondary coil.