Though we observe different kinds of force in nature, fundamental force are of four types. Rest of them is some forms of these fundamental forces. The forces which are root or independent i.e. the forces which are not produced from some other forces or not any forms of some other forces are called fundamental forces. Instead, other forces are some forms of these fundamental forces.
The four fundamental forces which exist in nature are:
- Force of gravitation
- Electromagnetic force
- Weak nuclear force
- Strong nuclear force
Force of Gravitation: In this universe every body attracts each other by a force towards them. The mutual attraction between any two bodies of the universe is called gravitation. This attraction occurs due to mass of the bodies. The force of gravitation is comparatively weak among the fundamental forces. Weight of us is the consequence of gravitation. The planets of the solar system are revolving round the Sun due to force of gravitation. The range of gravitation extends to infinity.
Electromagnetic force: The electromagnetic force is defiled as the force exerted by two charged particles or bodies on each other due to their charges. This force may be of both types- attractive or repulsive. When the charged particles are at rest, only electric force works between them. The magnetic force is created simultaneously in addition to the electric force between the particles when the charged particles are mobile. The force of attraction or repulsion between two magnetic poles is also electromagnetic force. The electric force acting between two charged fundamental particles is more powerful than the force of gravitation between them. Nevertheless, electric force is of medium type considering strength. Frictional force, spring force etc. are produced due to electric forces between the charged particles.
Weak nuclear force: The short range and small magnitude force that exists between the fundamental particles within the nucleus is called weak nuclear force. Due to this force the nucleus becomes unstable and beta decay occurs. Most of the radioactive disintegration occurs due to weak nuclear force. The range of this force is less than 10-16 m.
Strong nuclear force: It is known that there are two particles namely proton and neutron within the nucleus of an atom. These particles are called nucleon. The strong force that exists between two nucleons within the nucleus of an atom is called strong nuclear force. This force bounds the nucleons together. The strong nuclear force is responsible for the stability of the nucleus. This force is very short range and attractive. The range of this force is 10-15 m which is the radius of the nucleus. This force is the strongest among the fundamental forces.