Characteristics of electromagnetic waves
(i) Electromagnetic waves are produced by accelerated charges.
(ii) They do not require any material medium for propagation.
(iii) In an electromagnetic wave, the electric (→E) and magnetic (→B) field vectors are at right angles to each other and to the direction of propagation. Hence electromagnetic waves are transverse in nature.
(iv) Variation of maxima and minima in both →E and →B occur simultaneously.
(v) They travel in vacuum or free space with a velocity 3 × 108 m s-1 given by the relation C = 1/√(μ0ε0)
(μ0 – permeability of free space and ε0 – permittivity of free space)
(vi) The energy in an electromagnetic wave is equally divided between electric and magnetic field vectors.
(vii) The electromagnetic waves being chargeless, are not deflected by electric and magnetic fields.