Causes Energy losses in a transformer:
(1) Hysteresis loss
The repeated magnetization and demagnetization of the iron core caused by the alternating input current produces the loss in energy called hysteresis loss. This loss can be minimised by using a core with a material having the least hysteresis loss. Alloys like mumetal and silicon steel are used to reduce hysteresis loss.
(2) Copper loss
The current flowing through the primary and secondary windings lead to Joule heating effect. Hence some energy is lost in the form of heat. Thick wires with considerably low resistance are used to minimize this loss.
(3) Eddy current loss (Iron loss)
The varying magnetic flux produces eddy current in the core. This leads to the wastage of energy in the form of heat. This loss is minimized by using a laminated core made of stelloy, an alloy of steel.
(4) Flux loss
The flux produced in the primary coil is not completely linked with the secondary coil due to leakage. This results in the loss of energy. This loss can be minimized by using a shell type core.
In addition to the above losses, due to the vibration of the core, the sound is produced, which causes a loss in the energy.