QS Study

Haemorrhage means an escape of blood from a ruptured blood vessel. The effects of haemorrhage depend both on the amount and on the rate of the blood loss. Unexpected, non-minor reductions in blood volume due to a foremost hemorrhage of less than 20% of the total blood volume can be accommodated by the cardiovascular system of a healthy individual by substantial modulation of cardiovascular parameters.

Cardiovascular changes during Haemorrhage –

(i) Vasoconstriction

(ii) Tachycardia

iii) Venoconstriction

(iv) Increased thoracic pumping

(v) Increased skeletal muscle pumping (in some cases)

(vi) Increased movement of interstitial fluid into capillaries

(vii) Increased secretion of norepinephrine and epinephrine

(viii) Increased secretion of vasopressin

(ix) Increased secretion glucocorticoids

(x) Increased secretion of erythropoietin

(xi) Increased plasma protein synthesis.