QS Study

The uterine tubes are also called Fallopian tubes. They carry ova from ovary to the uterus. They lie in the upper border of the broad ligament, extending laterally from the uterus, opening into the abdominal cavity, near the ovaries.

The uterine tubes are located in the upper free margin of the broad ligaments of the uterus and each uterine tube is about 10 cm long.

They are subdivided into the following parts –

(i) Uterine part – finger-like, ciliated projections which capture the ovum from the surface of the ovary. It is located inside the wall of the uterus, thus the name intramural.

(ii) Isthmus – narrow section of the uterine tubes connecting the ampulla to the uterine cavity. It’s the narrowest part and is located just lateral to the uterus.

(iii) Ampulla – widest section of the uterine tubes. It’s the broadest and longest part of the pipe and creates quite more than one-half of the whole tube. Fertilization usually occurs here.

(iv) Infundibulum – funnel-shaped opening near the ovary to which fimbriae are attached. It overlies the ovary and presents an abdominal ostium.

Fig: Uterine Tube parts

Structure

From outside to inside the uterine tube presents the following parts –

  1. Serous coat: It is formed by the mesothelial cells which are derived from the peritoneum.
  2. Muscular Coat: It consists of the smooth muscle fibers arranged in the following manner –

(a) Outer longitudinal

(b) Inner circular.

  1. Mucosa: It is folded and is lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium which rests on a lamina propria.

Fig: Uterine Tube – blood supply

Blood Supply

Arterial supply: The Uterine Tube is supplied by 2 arteries: ovarian and uterine arteries.

  1. Uterine artery: a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. It supplies the medial two-thirds of the tube.
  2. Ovarian artery: It is a branch of the abdominal aorta. It supplies the lateral one-third of the tube.

Typically the medial two-thirds of the tube is supplied by the uterine artery and lateral one-third by the ovarian artery.

Venous drainage:

The veins drain into the pampiniform plexus of the ovary and into the uterine vein. The veins correspond to arteries; thereby venous blood is drained by the ovarian and uterine veins.