QS Study

The thalamus is a structure in the middle of the brain. It is a large ovoid mass of gray matter situated at the top of midbrain and forms the major part of the diencephalon. It is located between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain. It works to associate numerous vital processes, including consciousness, sleep, and sensory interpretation.

Nuclei of thalamus

In the anterior part: Anterior thalamic nuclei,

In the medial part: Dorso-medial nucleus,

In the lateral part:

(A) Dorsal tier –

  • Lateral dorsal,
  • Lateral posterior,
  • Pulvinar.

(B) Ventral tier –

  • Ventral anterior,
  • Ventral lateral,
  • Ventral posterior (Ventral posteromedial and Ventral pastero-laterol)

Fig: thalamus in the brain

Function of thalamus

The main function of the thalamus is to relay motor and sensory signals to the cerebral cortex. It also regulates sleep, alertness, and wakefulness. It is responsible for relaying information from the sensory receptors to proper areas of the brain where it can be processed.

  • It is the great sensory relay station which receives all sensors tract (except olfaction)
  • It integrates the information and relayed it to the cerebral cortex and many other subcortical regions.
  • Plays a key role in the integration of visceral and somatic function.
  • It is the center for crude sensation.
  • Responsible for arouser and alerting function.