QS Study

Steroid hormone of Adrenal Cortex

Steroids are the hormones which generally contain a cyclo-pentanoper-hydrophenanthrene nucleus. They are transported through the bloodstream to the cells of various target organs where they carry out the regulation of a wide range of physiological functions. Their chemical structure is similar to that of cholesterol in most case, a derivative of cholesterol itself. The adrenal cortex is a factory for steroid hormones. It produces some sex steroids, mainly androgens, and a talent of considerable significance in such diseases as congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex

(A) Zona glomerulosa → Mineralocorticoids – The outermost layer, it is the main site for production of aldosterone, by the action of the enzyme aldosterone synthase.

  1. Aldosterone (90%),
  2. Cortisol and Cortisone,
  3. Corticosterone,
  4. Corticonterole,
  5. Deoxycortison,
  6. 9 α-Fluorocortisol.

Fig: Steroid hormone of Adrenal Cortex

(B) Zona fasciculate → Glucocorticoids – It is responsible for producing glucocorticoids, such as 11-deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, and cortisol in humans.

  • Cortisol (95%)
  • Cortisone,
  • Prednisone,
  • Methyl Prednisone,
  • Corticosterone,
  • Dexamethasone.

(C) Zona reticularis → Androgenic – It produces androgens, mainly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S), and androstenedione in humans.

  • Testosterone,
  • Dihydrotestosterone,
  • Androstenedione,
  • Dihydroepiandrosterone.

The hormones of the adrenal cortex are derivatives of cholesterol. Cholesterol contains a cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene nucleus.

Gonadal and adrenocortical steroids are of 3 types –