QS Study

Sperm: Male gamete is known as sperm. It production occurs in the testicles. Upon reaching puberty, a man will create millions of sperm cells every day, each measuring about 0.002 inches (0.05 millimeters) long.

Fig: Human spermatozoon, profile view

Different parts of sperm:

Head: The head is about 5μm long, contains 23 chromosomes (haploid). Anterior 2/3 of the head is a thick cap called the acrosome that is formed mainly from Golgi apparatus. The head contains the nucleus. The nucleus holds the DNA of the cell.

Neck: 0.3 μm long constriction contains one centriole.

Middle piece: The midpiece of the sperm is packed with mitochondria. Mitochondria are organelles in cells that produce energy.

  • 5 μrn long cylindrical.
  • From within outwards axial filament mitochondrial sheath.
  • It provides energy for sperm motility.

Tail: The tail of the sperm moves like a propeller, around and around. This tail is a long flagellum that pushes forward.

  • End and principle piece,
  • From within outwards axial fitments (axoneme). Fibrous sheath, a thin film of cytoplasm and cell membrane.
  • 5 μm long.
  • A collection of mitochondria surrounding the axoneme is found in the proximal portion of the tail.

Storage of sperm: The 2 testes of the young adult form about 120 million sperm each day. These are stored in –

  • Epididymis,
  • Vas deferens,
  • Ampulla of vas deferens.

They can remain stored maintaining their fertility for at least a month.

Speed: 1 to 4 mm/min. The activity of the sperm is greatly enhanced in neutral and slightly alkaline media but is greatly inhibited by slightly acidic media.