QS Study

Our kidneys cooperate numerous essential roles in maintaining your health. One of their most significant jobs is to clean waste materials from the blood and eject them from the body as urine. The primary function of the kidneys is to sustain the accurate stability of water and minerals in the body.

Relations of the kidneys: The right kidney is located at a somewhat lower level compared to the left 1 because of the presence of the liver on the right side. The left kidney is little nearer to the median plane compared to the right.

Relations common to the two kidneys –

(1) The upper pole of each kidney is related to the corresponding suprarenal gland. The lower pole lies about one inch above the iliac crest.

(2) The medial border of each kidney is related to –

  • The suprarenal gland above the hilus,
  • The ureter below the hilus.

(3) Posterior relations: The posterior surfaces of both kidneys are related to –

  • The diaphragm,
  • The medial and lateral arcuate ligaments,
  • The psoas major,
  • The quadratus lumborum,
  • The transversus abdominis,
  • The subcostal vessels,
  • The subcostal, iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves,
  • The right kidney is related to the 12th rib and the left kidney is to the 11th and 12th ribs.

(4) The hilum is related to the renal vein, the renal artery, and the renal pelvis from anterior to posterior.

Fig: Anterior relations of the kidneys

Other relations of the right kidney –

(1) Anterior surface –

  • Right suprarenal gland,
  • Liver,
  • 2nd part of the duodenum,
  • Hepatic flexure of the colon,
  • Small intestine.

(2) The lateral border of the right kidney is related to the right lobe of the liver and to the hepatic flexure of the colon.

Other relations of the left kidney –

(1) Anterior relations:

  • Left suprarenal gland,
  • Spleen,
  • Stomach
  • Pancreas
  • Splenic vessels,
  • Splenic flexure and descending colon,
  • Jejunum.

(2) The gastric, splenic and jejunal surfaces are covered by peritoneum.

(3) The lateral border of the left kidney is related to the spleen and to the descending colon.