QS Study

Regulation of Normal Blood Sugar level

In a normal person, the blood glucose concentration is narrowly controlled, usually between 80 mg/dl and 90 mg/dl of blood in the fasting person each morning before breakfast. The human body wants blood sugar maintained in a very slight range. Insulin and glucagon are the hormones which make this happen.

The mechanism of high-level regulation of blood glucose is as follows –

The liver

Functions as an important blood glucose buffer system. Glucose is needed by cells for respiration. It is important that the concentration of glucose in the blood is maintained at a constant level.

(a) When blood glucose increases –

  1. ↑ Blood glucose conc. after a meal,
  2. ↑ Rate of insulin secretion,
  3. as much as 2/3rds of the glucose absorbed from the gut immediately,
  4. stored in the liver in form of glycogen.

(b) When blood glucose falls –

  1. ↓ Blood glucose Conc.
  2. ↓ Rate of insulin secretion,
  3. Liver releases glucose back into the blood

Hormonal control –

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates glucose levels in the blood. Following hormones regulate blood sugar level;

  • Insulin,
  • Glucagon,
  • Epinephrine and norepinephrine,
  • Cortisol,
  • Growth hormone,
  • Thyroxine,
  • Hormonal regulation of glucose.

Hormonal regulation of glucose to maintain Blood Sugar Level:

All the hormones along with liver function in such a coordinated way that blood glucose conc. remains within a range of 65-110 mg/dl normally.