QS Study

The abdomen houses vital organs in the body. It is a necessary part of the study for doctors when they are assessing pain and illness in patients. The abdomen contains most of the tube-like organs of the digestive tract, as well as several solid organs.

Regions of the abdomen: For the purpose of description (describing the locations of viscera) the abdomen is divided into nine regions by four imaginary planes, two horizontal and two vertical.

Horizontal planes

(A) Transpyloric plane: It lies horizontally midway between the jugular notch of the sternum and the pubic symphysis, i.e., approximately midway between the xiphoid process and the umbilicus, at the level of the lower border of the body of the 1st lumbar vertebra.

(B) Tran tubercular plane: It passes horizontally through the tubercles of the iliac crests at the level of the 5th lumbar vertebra.

Fig: Regions of Abdomen

Vertical Planes

The right and left vertical (or lateral) planes pass through the mid-inguinal points, i.e., a point on each inguinal ligament midway between the anterior superior iliac spine and the pubic symphysis.

The nine regions are arranged in three vertical zones, median, right, and left. From above down words, they are:

(1) Median regions:

  1. Epigastric region.
  2. Umbilical region.
  3. Hypogastric region.

(2) Right regions:

  1. Right hypochondriac region.
  2. Right lumbar region.
  3. Right inguinal region.

(3) Left regions:

  1. Left hypochondriac region.
  2. Left lumber region.
  3. Left inguinal region.

Relative positions of viscera at the epigastrium

(A) From anterior to posterior:

  1. Liver,
  2. Stomach and 1st part of the duodenum,
  3. Pancreas,
  4. Medial one-third of the spleen,
  5. An upper pool of kidney & suprarenal gland.

(B) From right to left:

  1. Liver,
  2. Suprarenal gland,
  3. Stomach,
  4. Pancreas,
  5. Medial one-third of a spleen.