QS Study

Physiological Apnoea

During swallowing or deglutition, respiration stops for a very short time. This condition is called physiological apnoea. Apnoea is a temporary suspension of breathing, occurring in some newborns (infant apnea) and in some adults during sleep. It is a relatively common condition where the walls of the throat relax and narrow during sleep, interrupting normal breathing

Duration: Less than 2 seconds.

Related Information

Apnoea is, where the muscles and soft tissues in the throat relax and collapse sufficiently to cause a total blockage of the airway; it’s called an apnoea when the airflow is blocked for 10 seconds or more. It’s normal for the muscles and soft tissues in the throat to relax and collapse to some degree while sleeping. For most people, this doesn’t cause breathing problems.

LES – Lower Esophageal Sphincter.

  • It is tonically active. It relaxed upon swallowing.
  • The tone of LES is under neural control.

Achalasia -It is a disease in which there is increased LES tone and incomplete relaxation upon swallowing.

Cause: Absence of myenteric plexus.

LES competence GERD

Intestinal Gas –

  • Belching – Regulation of swallowed air.
  • Flatus – Expelled intestinal gas per anus.
  • A normal amount of intestinal gas – 200 ml
  • Daily production of gas – 500 – 1500 ml.