QS Study

Nuclei of Hypothalamus

Definition: Collection of nucleus situated below the thalamus which is the major control headquarters for the limbic system. Hypothalamus is composed of numerous nuclei with dissimilar significant functions – hence, it is vital and confusing at the similar time. It is a part of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a mixture of functions. It is located below the thalamus and is part of the limbic system.

Nuclei of hypothalamus

Divided into two zone –

Medial Zone

Preoptic, Anterior, Paraventricular, Dorsomedial, Ventromedial, Infundibular (arcuate) and Posterior.

Lateral Zone

Supraoptic, Suprachiasmatic, lateral, Tuberomammillary and Lateral tuber cell.

Fig: Nuclei of the hypothalamus

Functions of the hypothalamus:

(A) vegetative and endocrine function:

  • Regulation of cardiovascular system,
  • Regulation of body temperature,
  • Regulation of body water,
  • Gastrointestinal and feeding regulation.
  • Regulation of uterine contractility and milk ejection.
  • Regulation of anterior pituitary secret.

(B) Behavioral function:

  • Control of thirst and eating by the lateral hypothalamus.
  • Control of satiety by the ventromedial nucleus.
  • Control of fear and punishment reactions by periventricular serve.
  • Control of emotional behavior and sexual drive.
  • The hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger.
  • Important aspects of parenting and attachment behaviors, thirst, sleep, and circadian rhythms.