QS Study

The face is developed by the fusion of a number of important processes around the stomodeum, namely front nasal process, maxillary process, and mandibular process. The external human face develops between the 4th and 6th week of embryonic development.

Nerve supply of face (On developmental background)

(A) Motor supply:

The facial nerve is the motor nerve of the face. Facial muscles develop from the mesoderm of the 2nd branchial arch. The facial nerve is the 2nd arch nerve. So, the facial muscles are supplied by the branches of the facial nerve.

  • Temporal,
  • Zygomatic,
  • Buccal,
  • Mandibular,
  • Cervical.

(B) Sensory supply:

The trigeminal nerve is the sensory nerve of the face. The greater part of the skin over the angle of the jaw is supplied through the cervical plexus.

(i) Branches of the trigeminal nerve:

Ophthalmic division: Supply the area developed from the frontonasal process by its branches –

  • Supratmchlear,
  • Lacrimal,
  • Infratrochlear,
  • External nasal,
  • Supraorbital.

Maxillary division: Supply the area developed from the maxillary process by its branches –

  • Zygomaticotemporal,
  • Zygomaticofacial,
  • Infraorbital.

Mandibular division: Supply the area developed from the mandibular process by its branches –

  • Auriculotemporal,
  • Buccal,
  • Mental.

(ii) Branches of cervical plexus: Supply the area over the angle of the mandible by –

  1. Great auricular nerve (anterior division),
  2. The transverse cutaneous nerve of the neck. (Upper division)

Nerve supply of Face 1

Fig: Nerve supply of Face

Developmental anomalies of the face –

(A) Cleft lip:

  • Unilateral,
  • Bilateral (Upper lip),
  • Median (Lower lip),
  • Oblique facial cleft.

(B) Cleft palate,

(C) Macrostomia,

(D) Microstomia.

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