QS Study

Necessary Factors for development of Red Blood Cell (RBC)

Red blood cells (RBC) are produced in the red bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts to give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. RBC start as undeveloped cells in the bone marrow and after about seven days of maturation are released into the bloodstream.

Factors controlling erythropoiesis are described below- (Erythropoiesis is the process of formation of erythrocyte under normal physiological condition. It is the procedure which produces red blood cells.)

(A) General factor, B) Haemoglobinzation factor, C) Maturation factor.

Fig: Factors controlling erythropoiesis (Red Blood Cell)

(A) General factors

Diet: Amino add (1st class protein) is necessary for the synthesis of globin portion of Hb.

Hypoxia: Hypoxic condition stimulates the liberation of hormone erythropoietin which stimulates bone marrow for erythropoiesis.

Erythropoietin: Erythropoietin, a hormone released from the hypoxic tissue of kidney stimulates bone marrow for erythropoiesis.


  • Pituitary hormone: ACTH stimulates bone marrow for the erythropoiesis.
  • Thyroid hormone: Thyroxin directly stimulates bone marrow for production of RBC.
  • Androgens: Increase RBC production. So RBC count is more in male than female most probably due to the presence of testosterone.

(B) Hamoglobinization factors

These factors are especially important for the Hb synthesis –

(i) Iron: Essential for heam formation, vit. C. Co, Mn, Cu catalyzes this reaction.

(ii) Cu and Mg: They help in the conversion of Iron to Hb.

(iii) Cobalt (Co): It enhances the activity of Cu and Mg.

(iv) Ca: It conserves more iron and its subsequent assimilation indirectly.

(v) Bile salt: Bile salt indirectly helps in erythropoiesis by proper absorption of vitamins and Metals. (Cu, Fe, Co)

(vi) Intrinsic factors of castle: For the vit B12 absorption from the gut.

(C) Maturation factor

(i) Vit B12: It is essential for final maturation of RBC. It helps in the formation of DNA for the nucleic acid synthesis. An absence of it causes Megaloblastic anaemia.

(ii) Folic Acid: Acts as a co-enzyme for DNA biosynthesis.

(iii) An intrinsic factor of the castle: It indirectly helps in RBC Maturation by increasing absorption of vit B12 from the gut.