QS Study

Memory is the process of retention and storage of information. The procedure for forming a memory involves encoding, storing, retaining, and subsequently recalling information and past experiences.

Types – Memory is divided into two main types –

Explicit memory (also called declarative or recognition memory):

Explicit memory, or declarative memory, is a type of long-term memory requiring conscious thought. It’s what most people have in mind when they think of a memory. It is associated with consciousness or at least awareness and is dependent for its retention on the hippocampus and other parts of the medial temporal lobes of the brain. It is divided into –

  • Episodic memory: Memory for events,
  • Semantic memory: Memory for words rules and language.

Implicit memory: (Also called nondeclarative or reflexive memory)

Implicit memory is a major form of long-term memory that does not require conscious thought. It allows you to do things by rote. It does not involve awareness; it includes skills and habits which, once acquired, become unconscious and automatic. Musicians and professional athletes are said to have superior ability to form procedural memories.

Further classification of Implicit memory:

Implicit –

  • Nonassociative,
  • Habituation,
  • Sensitization.


  • Classic conditioning
  • Operant conditioning.

Skills and habits

Explicit memory and many forms of implicit memory involve –

(i) Short-term memory: Which lasts seconds to hours.

(ii) Long-term memory: Which stores information for years and sometimes for life.