QS Study

The liver is the largest solid organ and the largest gland in the human body. It is located below the diaphragm in the right upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity. It is a metabolically active organ accountable for many vital life functions. It carries out over 500 essential tasks. Liver function tests help find out the strength of your liver by measuring the levels of proteins, liver enzymes, or bilirubin in your blood. It can help determine if your liver is working properly.

Liver function tests

  1. Biochemical Tests
  2. Serological Test

(A) Biochemical test


(a) Blood: Increased bilirubin causes jaundice.

(b) Urine test for bilirubin and urobilinogen.


(a) Aminotransferase

  • ALT (Alanine aminotransferase test) / SGPT (Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase test)
  • AST (Asparate aminotransferase) /SGOT (Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase test)

(b) Alkaline phosphatase

(c) Gamma – glutamyl transferase

Serum protein

(a) Total protein

(b) Serum albumin and globulin

(c) Serum albumin; globulin ratio

(d) Plasma protein electrophoresis.

Prothrombin time

Test for carcinoma of the liver (Estimation of alfa-fetoprotein (α-FP)


(B) Serological test

(1) Viral Ag and Ab; (2) Autoantibodies.


(i) HBs Ag – For Hepatitis B.

(ii) HBc Ag – For Hepatitis B.

(iii) HBe Ag – For Hepatitis B.


(i) Anti HBs, (ii) Anti HBc, (iii) Anti HBe.

Use of liver function tests

  • Differential diagnosis of Jaundice,
  • Diagnosis of Liver damage,
  • To assess the extent of liver damage,
  • To follow up the progress of liver.

Importance of Albumin – Globulin Ratio

  • It is the important biochemical teat of the liver.
  • The normal ratio is A:G = 2:1. Any Alteration indicates a liver disorder.