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Hypertension is a sustained elevation of the systemic arterial pressure. It is a key risk aspect for stroke, myocardial infarction, vascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. High blood pressure is considered to be 140/90mmHg or higher.

Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the blood. This is called systolic pressure. When your heart is at rest, between beats, your blood pressure falls. This is called diastolic pressure. Your blood pressure reading uses these two numbers. Usually, the systolic number comes before or above the diastolic number. A reading of

  • 119/79 or lower is normal blood pressure
  • 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure

Fig: Hypertension

Essential hypertension

Elevated arterial pressure, which persists always but cause of which is unknown is called essential hypertension.


It is treatable, but not a curable disease. Effective lowering of blood pressure by –

  • Drug that blocks B-adrenergic receptor.
  • Drug that inhibits the angiotension converting enzyme.
  • Ca++ channel blocker that relaxes the vascular smooth muscle.

Hypertension usually has no symptoms, but it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart failure, heart attack, and kidney failure. Acute causes of high blood pressure include stress, but it can occur on its own, or it can consequence from an underlying situation, such as kidney disease.