QS Study

The placenta is an endocrine gland that is only present during pregnancy. They are any of the hormones secreted by the placenta, including estrogen, progesterone, and human chorionic gonadotropin.

Hormones of the Placenta:

Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG): Very early in the pregnancy, we see the production of a hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin. It is essentially produced by the fertilized egg after it implants in the uterus and helps maintain the corpus luteum during the early stages of pregnancy.

  • Prevents involution of the corpus luteum at the end of the female sexual cycle,
  • Causes enlargement of corpus luteum of pregnancy.
  • Causes corpus luteum of pregnancy to secrete estrogen, progesterone, and relaxin. The relaxin inhibits myometrial contraction.

Estrogen: They are a group of sex hormones that uphold the growth and continuance of female characteristics in the human body.

  • Enlargement of mother’s uterus, breast and causes the growth of the breast ductal structure.
  • Development of fetus, such as rate of cell production in the early embryo.

Progesterone: Progesterone is the hormone of pregnancy because of the critical role it plays in supporting the endometrium and hence on the survival of the conceptus.

  • Development of decidual cells in the uterine endometrium to nutrient the early embryo.
  • Decreases contractility of the pregnant uterus.
  • Increases the secretion of fallopian tubes and uterus to provide nutrition for developing morula and blastocyst.
  • Preparing the mothers breast for lactation.

Human chorionic somatomammotropin (HCS): Also called chorionic growth hormone prolactin (CGP) and Human placental lactogen (HPL)

  • Development of breast, some instances causing lactation.
  • Functions as maternal growth hormone cause retention of nitrogen, potassium, and calcium.
  • Lipolysis and decreases glucose utilization.
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