QS Study

Functions of Large Intestine, Stomach, and HCl

The large intestine is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates. The stomach is a reservoir of food particles, where digestion begins. It is the internal organ in which the major part of the digestion of food occurs, being (in humans and many mammals) a pear-shaped enlargement of the alimentary canal linking the esophagus to the small intestine. HCL is an acid that forms when hydrogen and chloride combine in your stomach. Your body uses HCL in the early stages of digestion.

Large intestine

  1. Absorption of water and electrolytes from the chyme.
  2. Storage of fecal matter until it can be expelled.

Fig: Large Intestine, Stomach, and HCl


(1) Motor functions:

  • Storage of food until it can be accommodated in the duodenum.
  • Mixing of food with gastric secretions to form a semi-fluid mixture called chyme.
  • Emptying of broken small particles of the chyme into the small intestine slowly.

(2) Secretory function: Secretion of gastric juice which contains acid, enzymes, and salts, they subserve various function in the body.

(3) Digestive function: The gastrin enzyme helps in digestion of protein and fat.

(4) Absorptive function: Water, alcohol, haemopoitetin factor, and some drugs are absorbed from the stomach.

(5) Haemopoietic function: Intrinsic factor is released from the pyloric mucosa which helps in absorption of the extrinsic haemopoietic factor (Vit.B12).


  1. Causes of hydrolysis of proteins, carbohydrates to a certain extent.
  2. Kills ingested bacteria.
  3. Activates pepsinogen to pepsin.
  4. Provides an optimal pH for the action of pepsin.