QS Study

The soft tissues covering the cranial vault are called the scalp. It refers to the layers of skin and subcutaneous tissue that cover the bones of the cranial vault. It is made up of the deep inner layer, the dermis, and the superficial layer, the epidermis.

Functional significance

(1) Due to the abundance of sebaceous glands, the scalp is a common site for sebaceous cysts.

(2) As the blood supply of the scalp is very rich, evulsed portions can be replaced in position and stitched, because they usually take up and heal well.

(3) A wound of the scalp bleeds profusely because the vessels are prevented from retracting by the fibrous fascia. Bleeding can be arrested by applying pressure against the bone.

(4) Subcutaneous hemorrhages are never extensive due to the density of fascia; the inflammations in this layer cause little swelling but much pain.

(5) In the layer of loose areolar tissue, the emissary veins open, which may transmit infection from the scalp to the cranial venous sinuses. So, it is known as the dangerous area of the scalp.

(6) Like other parts of the skin, the scalp’s stratum corneum (skin’s outer layer) is only 0.02mm thick, but it plays an important role in protecting our body against external irritation.

(7) The scalp is the same as the skin on other parts of our body and has lipid glands and sweat glands. The lipid glands and sweat glands found in the scalp work to maintain skin moisture.

Collection of blood in the vascular injury

Loose connective tissue layer of the scalp is clinically important because blood is collected in this layers and which causes generalized swelling of the scalp. The blood may extend anteriorly into the root of the nose and into the eyelids, causing a black eye.

Related Study: