QS Study

Factors that influencing Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is the lateral pressure exerted by blood in per unit area of vessel wall while flowing through it. It is the force that moves blood through our circulatory system. It is a vital force because oxygen and nutrients would not be pushed around our circulatory system to nourish tissues and organs without blood pressure

Factors controlling arterial blood pressure are –

Pumping action of heart: Effective contraction of the heart is the main factor for controlling CO, BP and flow within vessels.

Cardiac output: CO α Blood pr. Again CO depends on venous return, force, and frequency of heartbeat.

Peripheral resistance: PR is directly proportional to velocity and viscosity of blood. PR is inversely proportion to Elasticity of arterial wall and lumen of the blood vessel.

An elasticity of arterial wall: ↑ Elasticity of Arterial wall →↓ B.P.

Blood volume: Blood volume raises both systolic and diastolic pressure.

Age: ↑Age → ↑ B. P.

Sex: Male > Female (10%]

Posture: BP in the recumbent position is lower than in standing or sitting posture.

Exercise: It increases blood pressure.

Some of the factors causing a short-term effect on blood pressure are

  • Asleep or awake – Sleeping usually results in a lowering of BP
  • Emotional state – stress, and anger increase BP while being relaxed decreases BP
  • Temperature – blood pressure will tend to go up when a person is cold
  • Sleep apnea – pauses in breathing while sleeping raise blood pressure
  • Smoking – increases blood pressure
  • Alcohol – increases blood pressure

BP in different age