QS Study

Contraception is the premeditated use of synthetic methods or other techniques to prevent pregnancy as a consequence of sexual interaction. It prevents pregnancy by interfering with the usual procedure of ovulation, fertilization, and implantation.

Classification of contraceptive methods:

(A) Spacing methods (Temporary methods) –

(1) Barrier methods

  • Physical methods: Condom, Cervical cap, Vaginal diaphragm, Vaginal sponge.
  • Chemical methods: Foams, Suppositories, Creams, jellies, and pastes, soluble films etc.
  • Combined methods.

(2) Mechanical methods: an Intra-uterine contraceptive device (IUCD)

(3) Hormonal methods:

(a) Oral pills

  • Combined pill (estrogen and progesterone)
  • Mini pill (progesterone only pill, POP),
  • Post-coital pill
  • Once-a-month (long-acting) pill
  • Male Pill.

(b) Depot (slow releasing) preparations:

  • Inject able-depot provera
  • Subcutaneous/subdermal implants.
  • Vaginal rings.

(4) Post-conceptional methods (Termination of pregnancy)

  • Menstrual regulation (MR),
  • Menstrual induction (MI),
  • Abortion.

(5) Miscellaneous: (Traditional methods)

(a) Behavioral methods:

  • Sexual abstinence.
  • Incomplete coitus (coitus interrupts)
  • Breastfeeding,
  • Sex without coitus.

(b) Natural methods –

  • Safe period/Rhythm method/Calendar method.
  • Basal body temperature (BST) Method.
  • Cervical mucus method/Billings method/Ovulation method.
  • Hypothermic method

(c) Contraceptive immunization- Birth control vaccine.

(B) Terminal methods (Permanent methods/Sterilization)

  1. Male sterilization- Vasectomy,
  2. Female sterilization- Tubal ligation/ Tubectomy.
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