QS Study

Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome of impaired carbohydrate and protein metabolism caused either lack of insulin set ration or decreased the sensitivity of the tissue to insulin. It is a chronic, lifelong condition that affects your body’s ability to use the energy found in food.

Diabetes mellitus means in “a running through sweet urine.”

Types of DM:

  1. Type I diabetes mellitus or Juvenile diabetes or Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). It occurs because the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (beta cells) are damaged.
  2. Type II diabetes mellitus or Adult onset diabetes or Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). This type occurs most often in people who are over 40 years old and overweight. It occurs when the body cannot produce enough insulin or the insulin is not working efficiently.

Clinical characteristic of a patient with type I & type II DM:

 Clinical manifestation:

Polyuria, Polydipsia, Polyphagia, Asthenia, Weight loss, Hyperglycemia, Acidosis etc.


(1) Urinary glucose: In diabetes mellitus – small to large.

(2) Fasting blood glucose and insulin level: Fasting blood glucose level –

  • Normal: Up to 110 mg/dl
  • DM: 140 mg/dl or more (>7.8 mmol/L)

Plasma insulin level –

  • In type I: Low or absent
  • In type II: Normal or high

(3) Glucose tolerance test;

(4) Acetone breathe.


(a) Diet: In type – I DM, the diet should be sufficient to promote gain in weight to a level slightly below normal for age and weight.

(b) Insulin,

(c) Oral hypoglycemic drugs

  • Metformin or thiazolidinediones cause insulin secretion.
  • Sulfonylureas cause an additional release of insulin by the pancreas.