QS Study

Diabetes Insipidus

It is a clinical condition characterized by the passage of a large volume of watery urine due to decrease ADH activity. Actually, it is due to failure of ADH secretion most frequently as a result of tumors of the hypothalamus, which causes the destruction of ADH seating nerve cells. It is an uncommon disorder that causes an imbalance of water in the body.

Cause: It occurs when your body can’t control how it handles fluids. Usually, your kidneys take away surplus body fluids from your bloodstream. This fluid ravage is temporarily stored in your bladder as urine before you urinate.

(1) Tumour:

  1. Pituitary tumors
  2. Metastatic Ca.

(2) Inflammation:

  1. Meningitis,
  2. Tuberculosis,
  3. Syphilis

(3) Granuloma,

(4) Trauma:

  1. Skull fracture,
  2. Head injury,
  3. Surgery.

(5) Vascular lesion,

(6) Idiopathic lesion,

(7) Iatrogenic.

Tab.: General characteristics of patients with CDI in comparison to a healthy population.

The symptoms of diabetes insipidus include:

Extreme thirst, Excessive amounts of urine, Constipation, Weak muscles etc.

Types

Pituitary Diabetes – Specific increase in secretion of GH or generalized increases in secretion of all anterior pituitary hormones cause elevated blood glucose level. This condition is called pituitary diabetes.

Adrenal diabetes – Increased secretion of glucocorticoids hormones elevate the blood glucose level. This condition is called adrenal diabetes.