QS Study

Our kidneys cooperate with numerous essential roles in maintaining your health. One of their most significant jobs is to clean waste materials from the blood and eject them from the body as urine. The kidney and urinary systems help the body to eliminate liquid waste called urea, and to keep chemicals, such as potassium and sodium, and water in balance. The primary function of the kidneys is to sustain the accurate stability of water and minerals in the body. After the kidneys make urine, it leaves the body using the rest of the urinary tract as a pathway.

Clinical Anatomy of Kidney and Urinary System


Passage of blood in the urine is called haematuria. It is the presence of red blood cells in the urine. The presence of 10 or more RBCs per high-power field is abnormal.


  1. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  2. Cystic disease.
  3. Neoplastic.
  4. Trauma.
  5. Stone.
  6. Trauma.


Passes of protein especially albumin through urine is refers to the condition called proteinuria. People with proteinuria have urine containing an abnormal amount of protein.


  1. High protein intake.
  2. Severe exercise.
  3. Acute Glomerulonephritis.
  4. Nephrotic syndrome.
  5. Pyelonephritis.
  6. Renal tuberculosis.
  7. Renal calculi.

Nephrotic syndrome

When substantial amounts of protein are lost in the urine, a series of secondary phenomenone called nephrotic syndrome. It is a kidney disorder that causes your body to excrete too much protein in your urine.

Common cause

  • SLE.
  • Amyloidosis.
  • DM.
  • Bacterial Endocarditis.
  • Malaria.
  • Syphilis.
  • Hepatitis B.


  1. Heavy proteinuria.
  2. Hypoproteinemia.
  3. Generalized oedema.
  4. Plasma cholesterol is usually increased.

Fig: Clinical Anatomy of Kidney and Urinary System

Chronic renal failure: (CRF)

Chronic renal failure refers to an irreversible deterioration in the renal function when classically develops over a period of years. When chronic kidney disease reaches an advanced stage, dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes and wastes can build up in your body.


  • Glomerulo nephritis.
  • Arteriosclerosis.
  • Tuberculosis.
  • Calculus.
  • Prostatic hypertrophy.
  • Pelvic tumors.

Catheterization of bladder

In some cases, the patient is unable to pass urine (retention of urine). In such cases, a rubber or metal tube (called a catheter) is passed into the bladder through the urethra.


It is a common, anomaly in which the urethra opens on the under the surface of the penis. It is pretty familiar and can sometimes be left as is. But doctors can do surgery to fix the problem when needed.


It is a rare condition in which the urethra opens on the dorsum of the penis. In boys with epispadias, the urethra opens in the top of the penis rather than the tip. Epispadias can produce a penis or urethra that don’t work well or look normal.

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