QS Study

Bile is a secretory product of liver made up of salt, pigment and other substances, dissolved in an alkaline solution which is stored in Gallbladder. It is a sticky fluid produced in the liver, stored in the gallbladder and delivered into the intestine, where it aids in the digestion of fat.

Bile salts are a component of bile, a fluid secreted from the gallbladder during the digestion of lipids. The function of bile salts in the duodenum is to solubilize ingested fat and fat-soluble vitamins, facilitating their digestion and absorption.

Bile salts

(1) Na – taurocholate.

(2) K – taurocholate

(3) Na – glycolate

(4) K – glycolate

Synthesis of Bile salt

  • Main precursor: Cholesterol
  • Daily production: 0.6 g/ day.

Fig: Bile salts

Site: Liver

(1) Taurine cholic acid → Taurocholic acid

Taurocholic acid + Na → Na taurocholate.

(2) Glycin + Enolic acid → Glycolic acid

Glycolic acid + Na → Na glycolate.

Functions of bile salt

Emulsifying function: Bile salt emulsifies the large fat particles of food into small particles that can be attracted by enzymes.

Absorptive function: Bile salt helps of fat and fat-soluble vitamins.

Prevention of gallstone: It keeps cholesterol in soluble form and thus prevents gallstone formation.

Intestinal motility: It increases intestinal motility.

Bile acids –

Primary bile acid: (these are formed in the liver)

Cholic Acid and Cheno-deoxycholic Acid

Secondary bile acid: (these are formed in the colon by bacteria from primary bile acids)

Deoxycholic Acid, Lithocholic Acid, and Enolic Acid.