QS Study

Blood coagulation refers to the process of forming a clot to stop bleeding. Clotting disorders can cause a dangerous amount of bleeding or clotting. It is performed to detect Coagulation Disorder, Epistaxis and Platelet Disorder and also during the treatment and after the treatment of Excessive Wound Bleeding.

Basic steps of blood coagulation

(Fundamental pathway of clot formation)

Step – 1

Formation of prothrombin activator by an extrinsic or intrinsic pathway. This conversion carried out by prothrombin activator. Formation of prothrombin activator occurs through two ways,

(1) Extrinsic pathway: It begins with trauma to the vascular wall and surrounding tissues. In this pathway, the formation of prothrombin activator is initiated by the tissue thromboplastin, which is formed from the injured tissues.

(2) Intrinsic pathway: It begins with the trauma to the blood itself. In this pathway, the formation of prothrombin activator is initiated by platelets, which are within the blood itself.

Step – 2

Conversion of prothrombin to thrombin by prothrombin activator. Blood clotting is all about thrombin formation. Once thrombin is formed, it definitely leads to clot formation.

Fig: Schema for conversion of prothrombin to thrombin and polymerization of fibrinogen to form fibrin fibers

Step -3

Conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin by an action of thrombin. Fibrin is an insoluble protein involved in blood clotting. The final stage of blood clotting involves the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin by thrombin.