QS Study

Anaemia is a clinical condition characterized by pale coloration of skin and mucous membrane due to qualitative and quantitative deficiency of haemoglobin below the lower limit in the peripheral blood for the age and sex of the pt. It is a condition that develops when your blood does not contain enough healthy red blood cells or haemoglobin. These cells are important for carrying oxygen around the body.

Normal Hb level

  • Male: 13 -18 gm/di
  • Female: 12 -16 gm/di
  • At birth: 20 gm/di
  • Children: 16 – 19 gm/di
  • Pregnant Women: 10.5 gm/dl

Site of observation

  1. Lower palpebral conjunctiva
  2. Dorsum of the tongue.
  3. Buccal mucous membrane
  4. Nail bed
  5. A palm of the hand
  6. Sole of the foot.

Anaemia must be compared with both side and it must be observed at daylight.

Fig: Anaemia – a clinical condition

Symptoms and signs

Pallor of skin, mucous membrane, conjunctiva, Tachycardia, Cardiac dilation, Oedema, Headache, Palpitation, Fatigue, Lassitude, Breathlessness on exertion, Insomnia, Angina etc.

The most common types of anaemia are-

Iron deficiency anaemia, Thalassaemia, Aplastic anaemia, Haemolytic anaemia, Sickle cell anaemia, Pernicious anaemia, Fanconi anaemia etc.


(A) Clinical Classification

(i) Mild- Hb 12 to 9 gm/dl; (ii) Moderate: Hb 9-6 gm/dl; (iii) Sever: Hb below 6 gm/dl.

(B) Morphological Classification: Based on MCV, MCH and MCHC.

Fig: anaemia classification