Jurisprudence is the philosophy of law. It is the study of theories and principles by which a legal system is established. The word law is derived from the Latin word “Jurisprudentia” which means “knowledge of the law” or “skill of law”. The word “Juris” means law and prudential mean knowledge, science, or skill. So jurisprudence refers to knowledge or law science and its application. There are different types of law and schools. Some treat the subject like science or math. Others, however, adopt a different approach. “Knowledge of law”, however, is the evolution in its limited sense and the interpretation of general principles on which the actual rules of law are based. It basically relates to the rules of external behavior that people are forced to obey. “Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, primarily by philosophers but also by social scientists from the twentieth century.” Austin was the first jurist to make law as a science. He defines ‘jurisprudence’ as “the philosophy of positive law.” He opined that the proper subject of jurisprudence is a positive law i.e. it is such a law (existing law). In other words, jurisprudence is not a moral philosophy but rather it is a scientific and systematic study of the separation of existing, actual, and positive law from natural, normative, or moral law.
Modern jurisprudence began in the 18th century and focused on the first principles of natural law, civil law, and national law. The type of question that the general judiciary seeks to answer and which can be divided into two categories by the theory of law or the school of thought relates to how these questions can best be answered. If the court is presented with multiple wills to investigate the same property and at least two people are witnesses to one of these wills, the court can quickly draw the correct legal conclusion in a legal manner: No and only the execution will be carried out in compliance with the statutory requirements. The basis of law is accessible through reasoning and it is from these laws of nature that human laws derive all their power. Analytical jurisprudence (explicitly explained law and order) rejects the fusion of natural law as to what is and should be. It supports a neutral approach and the use of descriptive language when referring to aspects of the legal system. The sociological branch examines the actual effect of law in society and the influence of social phenomena on the basic and methodological aspects of the law. The contemporary philosophy of law, which deals with general jurisprudence, addresses the internal problems of law and the legal system and the problems of law as a social institution in the larger political and social context in which it exists.
Lawyers and judges can use jurisprudence as a guide to the need for proper interpretation of certain laws. The study of jurisprudence does not serve only academic purposes. It incorporates this doctrine of jurisprudence as legal moralism, which says that there is no necessary connection between law and morality and that the force of law comes from basic social information; And “legal realism”, which argues that the real-world practice of law determines what law is, what law enforcement, lawyers, and judges do with it. Ideal jurisprudence relates to the “evaluative” theories of law. Pragmatism, sometimes called instrumentalism, is best exemplified by Justice Holmes’ statement that the court “decides cases first, and then sets policy.” This thinking is related to outcome-based jurisprudence, which sheds more light on the consequences of judicial decisions than on how related legal principles should be applied.