The earth is composed of various kinds of elements. These elements are in solid form in the outer layer of the earth and in the hot and molten form in the interior. About 98 percent of the total crust of the earth is composed of eight elements like oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium etc.
Here explain some major minerals and their characteristics:
Silicon and oxygen are common elements in all types of feldspar and sodium, potassium, calcium, aluminum etc. are found in specific feldspar variety. Half of the earth’s crust is composed of feldspar. It has light cream to salmon pink color. It is used in ceramics and glass making.
It is one of the most important components of sand and granite. It consists of silica. It is a hard mineral virtually insoluble in water. It is white or colorless and used in radio and radar. It is one of the most important components of granite.
Pyroxene consists of calcium, aluminum, magnesium, iron, and silica. Pyroxene forms 10 percent of the earth’s crust. It is commonly found in meteorites. It is in green or black color.
Aluminum, calcium, silica, iron, magnesium are the major elements of amphiboles. They form 7 percent of the earth’s crust. It is in green or black color and is used in asbestos industry. Hornblende is another form of amphiboles.
It comprises of potassium, aluminum, magnesium, iron, silica etc. It forms 4 percent of the earth’s crust. It is commonly found in igneous and metamorphic rocks. It is used in electrical instruments.
Magnesium, iron, and silica are major elements of olivine. It is used in jewelry. It is usually a greenish crystal, often found in basaltic rocks. Besides these main minerals, other minerals like chlorite, calcite, magnetite, haematite, bauxite, and barite are also present in some quantities in the rocks.