Cold Snow Forest Climates according to Koeppen’s Classification
Cold snow forest climates occur in the large continental area in the northern hemisphere between 40°-70° north latitudes in Europe, Asia, and North America. Moist continental mid-latitude climates have warm to cool summers and cold winters. The position of these climates is poleward of the C climates. The usual temperature of the warmest month is greater than 10° Celsius, while the coldest month is less than -3° Celsius. Winters are stern with snowstorms, strong winds, and bitter cold from Continental Polar or Arctic air masses.
Cold snow forest climates are divided into two types:
(i) Df- cold climate with humid winter; (ii) Dw- cold climate with dry winter. The severity of winter is more pronounced in higher latitudes.
Cold Climate with Humid Winters (DJ)
Cold climate with humid winter occurs poleward of marine west coast climate and mid-latitude steppe. The winters are cold and snowy. The frost-free season is short. The annual ranges of temperature are large. The weather changes are abrupt and short. Poleward, the winters are more severe.
Cold Climate with Dry Winters (Dw)
Cold climate with dry winter occurs mainly over Northeastern Asia. The development of pronounced winter anticyclone and its weakening in summer sets in the monsoon-like reversal of wind in this region. Poleward summer temperatures are lower and winter temperatures are extremely low with many locations experiencing below freezing point temperatures for up to seven months in a year. Precipitation occurs in summer. The annual precipitation is low from 12-15 cm.