Market failure is a general term that describes situations where market results are not Pareto efficient. Market failure can be seen in situations where the realization of people’s genuine interests leads to results that are not efficient – which can be improved from a social point of view. Furthermore, individual motivations for rational behavior do not lead to logical outcomes for the group. Put another way, each person makes the right decision for himself but they prove to be the wrong decision for the team. Failure in the market provides an argument for government intervention. Market failures are often associated with public products, time-inconsistent choices, data asymmetry, non-competitive markets, core-agent problems, or externalities. It is better to compare the results from intervening against realistic alternatives. Yet public debate often stems from this initial understanding of what market failure is and how it should be addressed.
The existence of a market failure is often because self-regulatory agencies, governments, or supra-national institutions intervene in a particular market. For the purpose of competition policy, the most relevant of these is the existence of market power or the absence of perfect competition. However, there are other types of market failures that can justify control or public ownership. Externally reduces the social benefits of selfishness. If selfish customers do not have to pay the producer for the benefit, they will not pay; And if the selfish producers are not paid, they cannot produce. A valuable product fails to appear. Economists, especially microbiologists, are often concerned with the causes of market failures and possible ways to correct them. This national analysis plays an important role in many types of public policy decisions and studies. Content that is competitive and non-exclusive – such as police, national defense. Public products are often not supplied in a free market. This may arise due to the nature of the product such as zero or low marginal cost products and which is difficult to deprive people of use (known as public product; for example, lighthouse or national defense). The tug-of-war between economic costs caused by market failure and the costs caused by “government failure” has led policymakers to sometimes (but not always) intervene between two ineffective outcomes, such as inefficient market outcomes with or without government intervention.
Sadly, public debates are still dominated by the initial understanding of market failure and the belief that the government can easily correct market inadequacies. Environmental market failures exist when human activity in a market economy is exhausting critical non-renewable resources, disrupting fragile ecosystem services, or overloading the capacity to absorb bio-organic waste. In none of these cases does Pareto meet the criteria for efficiency.