Physical Properties of Toluene:
(i) Colorless liquid matter.
(ii) Lighter than water (Specific Gravity: 0.866)
(iii) Melting Point → 9.8°C (or —198°C or 98°C); boiling Point → 1100 ≈ 112°C.
(iv) Good solvent.
(iv) Insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol, ether etc.
(vi) More reactive than benzene, but less toxic.
Preparation of Toluene from Petroleum: If mineral oil or petroleum is partially distilled, gasoline is obtained. It is then heated (500°C) with Pt / Al2O3 & the thermal dissociation, cyclication & dehydrogenation of n-haptane are occurred & toluene is produced.