Glucose: Physical and Chemical Properties

Glucose: Physical and Chemical Properties

Glucose is a monosaccharide, which is another term for a simple sugar. It is one of three monosaccharides that are used by the body, but it is the only one that can be used directly to produce ATP. ATP is used by the body for energy; in fact, ATP is the only molecule that can be used for energy. Another name of glucose is grape sugar or dextrose. (D-glucose).

Chemical Properties

  • Monosaccharides cannot be broken into simple CHO upon hydrolysis and they have 3 to 7 carbon atoms in their molecules.
  • Oligosaccharides are made up of 2 to 10 units of monosaccharides or simple sugar.
  • General formula of polysaccharides is (C6H10O5)n; here. n = 100-300
  • The monosaccharides which have aldehyde (—CHO) group in their structure is called aldose and the monsaccharides which contain ketone (>C=O) group in their structure is called ketose. Glucose, riboses are aldose: fructose is a ketose.
  • Glucose contains four asymmetrical carbon atoms in its structure.

Physical properties

  • Can be solid or liquid
  • Melting Point: 294.8˚F(146˚C)
  • Density: 1.54 g/cm³
  • Weight: 180.16 g/mol
  • Soluble in water and acetic acid

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