Benzene is the main aromatic hydrocarbon.
Physical Properties of Benzene:
(i) Colorless, volatile liquid with special odour and it is more toxic & carcinogenic
(ii) Specific gravity : 0.88; lighter than water.
(iii) It is a good solvent for fat, wax, sulpher, resin etc.
(iv) M.P. –> 5.40°C, B.P–> 480.4°C
(v) Insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvent.
(vi) During combustion, it produces black flame.
Industrial Manufacture of Benzene from Coal: When coal is destructively (1000-12000C absence of air) distilled, four fractions are obtained: Coal gas, coal tar etc. The gaseous portion obtained by destructive distillation of coal is called coal gas & the liquid portion is called light oil.