The Rutherford model for the structure of atoms has several limitations which are given below:
i. This model was made analogous to the solar system where the nucleus may be compared to the sum, and the electron to the planets. In space the planets are neutral and attract each other according to the law of gravitation. However, the electrons orbiting the nucleus are negatively charged and these electrons repel each other.
ii. It was shown by clark Maxwell that a charged body moving under the influence of attractive force loses energy continuously in the form of electromagnetic radiation. Thus unlike a planet the electron is a charged body and it emit radiations while removing around nucleus. As a result, the electron should lose energy at every turn and move closer and closer to the nucleus following a spiral path Consequently the orbit will become smaller and smaller and finally the electron will into the nucleus In other words the atom should collapse. However this never happens, therefore except some drawbacks in the atomic model of energy as a result it falls to the nucleus.
iii. Rutherford model also failed to explain the existence of certain definite lines in the hydrogen spectrum.
iv. This model does not give any idea of the shape and size of the orbits of electrons.
v. For atoms having more than one electron, the model failed to explain the manner in which these electrons revolve around nucleus.