Wilbur Schramm, a well-known communication theorist, developed a straightforward communications model in his book “The Process and Effects of Mass Communications“. In the model, Schramm shown as Aristotle did, that communication always requires three elements – the source, the message and the destination. Ideally, the source encodes a message and transmits it to its destination via some channels, where the message is received and decoded. Schramm’s Model of Communication was postulated by Wilbur Schramm in 1954, where he suggested that communication is a two-way process where both sender and receiver take turns to send and receive a message.
This model was adapted from the theories of another theorist Osgood, so is also known as Osgood and Schramm Model of Communication or Encode-Decode Model of Communication.
Schramm’s Communication Model
Schramm’s Model is as follows:
Schramm’s Model has different parts for communications where
- Sender is the person who sends the message.
- Encoder is the person who turns the message to be sent into codes.
- Decoder is the person who gets the encoded message which has been sent by the encoder and converts it into the language understandable by the person.
- Interpreter is the person who works to understand and analyze the message. The message is received after interpretation. Interpreter and receiver is the same person.
- Receiver is the person who gets the message. He/she decodes and interprets the actual message.
- Message is the data sent by the sender and information that the receiver gets.
- Feedback is the process of acknowledging to the received message by the receiver.
- Medium or media is the channel used to send the message.
- Noise is the interference and interruptions caused during the process. It is also created when the intended meaning of the message sent by the sender and the meaning interpreted by the receiver is different which is known as Semantic Noise.