Training is the set of organized activities aimed at imparting information and or instructions to improve the recipient’s performance or to help him or her attain a required level of knowledge and skill then the organized activities are known as training. It aims to fulfill the gap in current skills and required skills as per job requirement.
On-the-job training Methods
Under these methods, new or inexperienced employees learn by observing peers or managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behavior. These methods do not cost much and are less disruptive as employees are always on the job, training is given on the same machines and experience would be on already approved standards, and above all the trainee is learning while earning. Some of the commonly used methods are:
Coaching: It is a one-to-one training. It helps in quickly identifying the weak areas and tries to focus on them. It also offers the benefit of transferring theory learning to practice. The biggest problem is that it perpetuates the existing practices and styles. In India, most of the scooter mechanics are trained only through this method.
Mentoring: The focus of this training is on the development of attitude. It is used for managerial employees. Mentoring is always done by a senior inside person. It is also a one-to-one interaction, like coaching.
Job Rotation: It is the process of training employees by rotating them through a series of related jobs. Rotation not only makes a person well acquainted with different jobs, but it also alleviates boredom and allows to develop a rapport with a number of people. Rotation must be logical.
Job Instructional Technique: It is a Step by step (structured) on the job training method in which a suitable trainer (a) prepares trainee with an overview of the job, its purpose, and the results desired; (b) demonstrates the task or the skill to the trainee; (c) allows the trainee to show the demonstration on his or her own, and (d) follows up to provide feedback and help. The trainees are presented with the learning material in written or by learning machines through a series called ‘frames’. This method is a valuable tool for all educators (teachers and trainers). It helps us:
- To deliver step-by-step instruction,
- To know when the learner has learned
- To be due diligent (in many workplace environments).
Apprenticeship: It is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a skill. This method of training is in vogue in those trades, crafts and technical fields in which a long period is required for gaining proficiency. The trainees serve as apprentices to experts for long periods. They have to work in direct association with and also under the direct supervision of their masters. The object of such training is to make the trainees all-round craftsmen. It is an expensive method of training. Also, there is no guarantee that the trained worker will continue to work in the same organization after securing training. The apprentices are paid remuneration according to the apprenticeship agreements.
Understudy: In this method, a superior gives training to a subordinate as his understudy as an assistant to a manager or director (in a film). The subordinate learns through experience and observation by participating in handling day to day problems. The basic purpose is to prepare subordinate for assuming the full responsibilities and duties.