An offer may be communicated to the offeree or offerees by word of mouth, by writing or by conduct. The general rule is that the revocation is effective only when it is made known to the offeree. An offeror may revoke an offer before it has been accepted, but the revocation must be communicated to the offeree.
(1) By notice of revocation. Offer may be revoked by a communication of a notice of revocation by the offeree to the other party before acceptance is complete against the offerer himself. An offer made in writing may be revoked by words of mouth. The notice of revocation may not always be express. A notice of revocation to be effective must be communicated to the offeree.
(2) By lapse of time. A proposal will come to an end by the lapse of time prescribed in such proposal for its acceptance or if no time is so prescribed by the lapse of time of reasonable time is a question of fact depending upon the circumstances of each case. Where the subject matter of the contract is an article, like gold, the parties of which fluctuate daily in the market, very short period will be regarded as made late in November.
(3) By non-fulfillment of a condition precedent. A proposal revoked when the acceptor fails to fulfill a condition precedent to the acceptance of the proposal which was conditional offer. Thus, X may offer to sell certain goods to Y on a condition that Y pays a certain amount before a certain date.
(4) By death or insanity. A proposal is revoked by the death or insanity of the proposer if the fact of his death or insanity comes to the knowledge of the acceptor before acceptance.
(5) By counter offer. An offer comes to end when the offeree makes a counter-offer or reject the offer. Where an offer is accepted with some modification in the terms of the offer or with some other condition not forming part of the offer, such qualified acceptance amount to a counter offer.
(6) By the non-acceptance of the offer according to the prescribed or usual mode. The offer will also stand revoked if it has not been accepted according to the prescribed.
(7) By subsequent illegality. An offer lapses if it becomes illegal after it is made and before it is accepted. Thus, where an offer is made to sell 10 bags of wheat for $ 2500 and before it is accepted, a law prohibiting the sale of wheat by a private individual is entered, the offer comes to end.