Recruitment is a process of accumulation of human resources for the vacant positions of the organization. It is an initial step of the system. It includes requisition of manpower and at last submission of the application by the job-seeker.
External sources: There are some external sources of human resource recruitment. These sources are classified into several sub-points. These sub-points can again be divided into a sub-sub point. The classification is shown below –
Methods of External Sources –
Advertisement: It is a method of recruitment frequently used for skilled workers, clerical and higher staff. Advertisement can be given in newspapers and professional journals. These advertisements attract applicants in a large number of highly variable quality.
Employment Exchanges: Employment exchanges in India are run by the Government. For unskilled, semi-skilled, skilled, clerical posts etc., it is often used as a source of recruitment. In certain cases, it has been made obligatory for the business concerns to notify their vacancies to the employment exchange. In the past, employers used to turn to these agencies only as a last resort. The job-seekers and job-givers are brought into contact by the employee exchanges.
Schools, Colleges, and Universities: Direct recruitment from educational institutions for certain jobs (i.e. placement) which require technical or professional qualification has become a common practice. A close liaison between the company and educational institutions helps in getting suitable candidates. The students are spotted during the course of their studies. Junior level executives or managerial trainees may be recruited in this way.
Recommendation of Existing Employees: The present employees know both the company and the candidate is recommended. Hence some companies encourage their existing employees to assist them in getting applications from persons who are known to them.
In certain cases, rewards may also be given if candidates recommended by them are actually selected by the company. If recommendation leads to favoritism, it will impair the morale of employees.
Factory Gates: Certain workers present themselves at the factory gate every day for employment. This method of recruitment is very popular in India for unskilled or semi-skilled labor. The desirable candidates are selected by the first line supervisors. The major disadvantage of this system is that the person selected may not be suitable for the vacancies.
Central Application File: A file of past applicants who were not selected earlier may be maintained. In order to keep the file alive, applications in the files must be checked at periodical intervals.
Labor Union: In certain occupations like construction, hotels, maritime industry etc., (i.e., industries where there is instability of employment) all recruits usually come from unions. It is advantageous from the management point of view because it saves exports of recruitment. However, in other industries, unions may be asked to recommend candidate either as a goodwill gesture or as a courtesy towards the union.
Labor Contractors: This method of recruitment is still prevalent in India for hiring unskilled and semi-skilled workers in brick kiln industry. The contractors keep themselves in touch with the labor and bring the workers to the places where they are required. They get a commission for the number of persons supplied by them.
Former Employees: In case employees have been laid off or have left the factory at their own, they may be taken back if they are interested in joining the concern (provided their record is good).
Other Sources: Apart from these major sources of external recruitment, there are certainly other sources which are exploited by companies from time to time. These include special lectures delivered by a recruiter in different institutions, though apparently, these lectures do not pertain to recruitment directly.