A job analysis is a process used to collect information about the duties, responsibilities, necessary skills, outcomes, and work environment of a particular job. You need as much data as possible to put together a job description, which is the frequent outcome of the job analysis.
Job analysis is a family of procedures to identify the content of a job in terms of activities involved and attributes or job requirements needed to perform the activities. Job analysis provides information to organizations which help to determine which employees are best fit for specific jobs. Through job analysis, the analyst needs to understand what the important tasks of the job are, how they are carried out, and the necessary human qualities needed to complete the job successfully.
The job analysis may include these activities:
- reviewing the job responsibilities of current employees.
- doing Internet research and viewing sample job descriptions online or offline highlighting similar lobs,
- analyzing the work duties, tasks, and responsibilities that need to be accomplished by the employee filling the position.
- researching and sharing with other companies that have similar jobs, and,
- articulation of the most important outcomes or contributions needed from the position.
It is the detailed examination of the (i) tasks (performance elements) that make up a job (employee role), (ii) conditions under which they are performed, and (iii) what the job requires in terms of, attitudes (behavior characteristics), knowledge, skills, and the physical condition of the employee.
Its objectives include (a) determination of the most efficient methods of doing a job, (ii) enhancement of the employee’s job satisfaction, (c) improvement in training methods, and, (d) development of performance measurement system.
Comprehensive job analysis begins with the study of the organization itself: its purpose, design and structure, inputs and outputs, internal and external environments, and resource constraints. It is the first step in a thorough understanding of the job and forms the basis of the job description which leads to the job specification.