Job analysis is the systematic investigation of job content, the physical circumstances in which the job is carried out, and the qualifications needed to carry out job responsibilities. It is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job.
Critical incidents method: The critical incidents technique requires the appraiser to keep a record of unusually favorable or unfavorable occurrences in an employees’ work. In the critical incident method, the manager keeps a written record of both highly favorable and unfavorable actions in an employees’ performance. When a Critical incident involving an employee occurs, the manager writes down. The critical incident method can be used with other methods to document the reasons why an employee was rated in a certain way.
Advantages: The positive aspect of this approach is that it provides a factual record for subsequent discussion and decision making and that it provides data directly related to job performance.
Disadvantages: On the negative side, the approach requires close and continuous observation by the appraiser. This is time-consuming and also costly, and workers may become very apprehensive when they know their supervisor is keeping a “log” on them.