Pteridophyta is the first vascular plant (which Possesses vascular tissues). The number of species of pteridophyte is about 10,000 species. As a representative of Pteridophyta, the description of Pteris is given below. Pteris is also known as sun fern.
- Pteris plant is sporophytic.
- Plant body is divided into root stem and leaves.
- The stem is Rhizomatous and bears scales.
- Leaves are evergreen and pinnately compound. Leaves of fern are known as Frond.
- Vemation of young leaf is circinate.
- Sporangia (Sing: Sporangium) develop along the margin of the mature leaves. The swollen portion of a sporangium is called the capsule. Spores are borne in the capsule,
- The spores germinate and give rise to green heart-shaped gametophytes-called Prothallus. Male and female sex organs develop on Prothallus, and by the union of the male and female gametes a new Pteris plant is born. Pteris are found to grow on old, broken walls and old bricks heap.
Importance of Fern: Many ferns are planted in pots as ornamental plants Some ferns are taken as vegetables and some produce medicines.