Mangrove Ecosystem of Sundarban
Mangrove trees have developed unique adaptations to the harsh conditions of coastal environments. The dynamic system of mutual interactions in between biotic (plants, animals, bacteria etc.) and their abiotic environment (seas, rivers hills, light. air etc) said to be the ecosystem.
Such as – A plant, a cultivated land, a forest, a desert or an ocean is a single ecosystem. There are about 80 different species of mangrove trees. All of these trees grow in areas with low-oxygen soil, where slow-moving waters allow fine sediments to accumulate.
An ecosystem consisting of two parts of which one part is the structure and another part is its function.
For the structure of the ecosystem, we mean the quality and distribution of living and nonliving substances and their environment. For the functions of the ecosystem, we mean the periodic cycle of the flow of biotic energy and nutrition.
The Mangrove Ecosystem of Sundarban:
Sundarban is the biggest mangrove forest in the world. It occupies the coastal region of Khulna and partly of Barishal. This flat marshy plain is intersected by a network of rivers and channels. This forest is about 180 miles in cast west and 70 miles in the South-North direction. The Sundarbans delta is the largest mangrove forest in the world and is intersected by a complex network of tidal waterways, mudflats and small islands of salt-tolerant mangrove forests.
The Ecosystem of Sundarban forest area is as follows:
(i) Producers: The producers of this forest are Sundari (Heritiera foames), Keora (Sonneretia apatata), Geoa (Excoecaria agalocha), Golpata (Nipia frutican), Garan, Posu, Hintal etc trees. Besides Hogla, Harvanga are found in Sundarban.
(ii) A Biotic Elements: Soil, water, sunlight, Carbon dioxide, Oxygen, Nitrogen, phosphoric etc. The water of this region is saline.
(iii) Primary food: Deer, usually live on Keora leaves, grass etc. Therefore deer are the primary consumers.
(iv) Secondary Consumers: Tigers live by eating deer. Therefore Tigers are secondary consumers.
(v) Decomposers: When tigers, deer, plants become dead, different types of bacteria will decompose the dead bodies and eventually will mix up in the soil as biotic and abiotic elements. Green plants complete their life cycle by using those elements.