The soil is polluted by several means. The soil is eroded by different natural factors like the flood, volcanic eruption, rainfall, and wind flow, etc. Due to flood soil is eroded and become unproductive. A plant cannot grow on that soil. Rainfall and wind, in the same way, erode the upper layer of the earth and make the soil.
Main Causes of Soil Pollution
- Industrial Activity – The wrong method of chemical waste disposal from diverse types of industries can cause pollution of soil. Human activities like this have led to acidification of soil and contagion due to the disposal of industrial waste, heavy metals, toxic chemicals, dumping oil and fuel, etc.
- Agricultural Activities – Chemical deployment has gone up extremely since technology provided us with modern pesticides and fertilizers. They are full of chemicals that are not produced in nature and cannot be broken down by it. As a result, they seep into the ground after they mix with water and gradually decrease the productiveness of the soil.
- Waste Disposal – While industrial waste is sure to cause pollution, there is another way in which we are adding to the pollution. Every human produces a certain amount of personal waste products by way of urine and feces. Even the sewer system ends at the landfill, where the biological waste pollutes the soil and water.
- Accidental Oil Spills – Oil leaks can happen during the storage and transport of chemicals. This can be seen at most of the fuel stations. The chemical present in the fuel deteriorates the quality of soil and makes them unsuitable for cultivation.
- Urban Activities – Lack of proper waste disposal, regular constructions can cause excessive damage to the soil due to lack of proper drainage and surface run-off. These waste disposed of by humans contain chemical waste from residential areas.
- Acid Rain – Acid rain is caused when pollutants present in the air mix up with the rain and fall back on the ground. The contaminated water could melt away some of the vital nutrients found in soil and change the structure of the soil.
Several activities of human beings, cause the soil to be polluted. Destruction of forests and plants, excessive cultivation and irrigation cause soil pollution. If there is no plant and cultivation is done in excess, it will erode the fertile layer of the soil surface and thus soil will become non-fertile. Excess irrigation causes waterlogging and makes the soil saline. Underground salt being dissolved in water come to the surface and make the soil non-fertile. Various types of waste materials are one of the causes of soil pollution. Harmful chemical substances and substances that are not absorbed by nature (e.g. polythene, plastic, etc.) cause soil pollution. When the soil is polluted no plants, insects or microorganisms can grow on it. As a result, the soil becomes unproductive and unfit for human habitation. To keep the natural environment balanced a fertile and productive soil is necessary. Therefore, we all should take care so that the soil does not get unfertile and polluted. One of the ways to protect soil pollution is to plant more and more plants. There should have necessary laws so that industries do not leave their wastes here and there. If we all are careful against soil pollution it is possible to prevent pollution.