The stem is the component of the plant which lies above the surface of the soil. It is a key vegetative organ in the vascular plants, sustaining other organs (such as leaves or fruits). It arises from the plumule of the embryo. In the majority of plants, the stems are positioned above the soil surface.
The root is the element of the plant which lies underneath the surface of the soil. The root is a key vegetative organ of the vascular plants, attaching them to the substrate. It arises from the radical of the embryo. The root is not differentiated into nodes and internodes. The roots are naturally underground.
Difference between root and stem from their anatomical structures:
The internal structure of the stem
- Epidermal cells are cutinized in the stem. The cuticle is present on the epidermis. The function of the epidermis is protection.
- Stem hair is unicellular or multicellular.
- Stomata are usually present in the epidermis. They are present in the epidermis of the young stem.
- Cortex is small. They are usually narrow. They are usually narrow and is differentiated into the inner, middle and outer cortex.
- Hypodermis is present in stem. Hypodermis present; no recognizable pattern in endodermis.
- Vascular bundles are a conjoint type
- Protoxylem lies towards the periphery. (the xylem arc exarch)
- In the stem, epidermal cells are cutinized. The epidermis function in protection.
- The primary function of the stem is of photosynthesis, storage, and transportation or minerals and other materials to other parts of the plant.
Fig: Root and Stem from their Anatomical Structures
The internal structure of the root –
- Epiblema does not contain cuticle. Root epidermal cells are not cutinized.
- Root hairs are always unicellular. In roots, the epidermal cells are not cutinized.
- Stomata are absent in epiblema. They are completely absent.
- Cortex is large and broad. They are undifferentiated.
- The hypodermis is absent in root. The endodermis is prominent and distinct.
- Vascular bundles are radial type.
- Protoxylem lies towards the center, i.e. the xylem is endarch.
- The function of the epidermis is the absorption of water and nutrients. Here the function of the epidermis is to absorb water and nutrients.
- The primary function of the root is anchorage, absorption of water, minerals, and salt.